ARE PRIVATE SUSTAINABILITY STANDARDS OBSTACLES TO, OR ENABLERS OF, SME PARTICIPATION IN VALUE CHAINS?

Global Economic Governance and IEA Kenya

ARE PRIVATE SUSTAINABILITY STANDARDS OBSTACLES TO, OR ENABLERS OF, SME PARTICIPATION IN VALUE CHAINS?    |   File Size: 0 kB Downloads: 8   |   Post Date: 16 October 2017

This discussion paper examines the roles of South Africa and Kenya as regional gateways for global value chains (GVCs) coordinated by multinational corporations (MNCs), and the obstacles small and medium enterprises (SMEs) face in entering those value chains, owing to the voluntary sustainability standards (VSS) enacted by MNCs. As SMEs play a significant role in the formal and informal sector, both of which are crucial to the two countries’, and their neighbours’, economies, integrating them successfully holds developmental gains. 


Informing the approach of multilateral development banks to use of country systems

Global Economic Governance and IEA Kenya

Informing the approach of multilateral development banks to use of country systems    |   File Size: 3,352 kB Downloads: 21   |   Post Date: 02 October 2017

 Most countries consider infrastructure development as a key enabler of development, as it spurs job creation, trade and investment. For many developing countries, multilateral development banks (MDBs) are important in addressing their infrastructure financing deficits. MDBs have historically dictated the terms of financing by prescribing rules on financial management and environmental and social safeguards, despite the presence of similar systems in the relevant countries. Increasingly, however, both MDBs and their borrowers are seeking to eliminate such extra requirements in favour of the full utilisation of countries’ own domestic systems and processes, broadly referred to as the ‘use of country systems’ (UCS). The defining benefit of greater UCS to MDBs is that it respects the sovereignty of countries by not imposing external conditionalities. UCS also promotes national ownership of development projects by increasing the involvement of domestic actors, institutions and processes, and hence increasing projects’ sustainability. At the same time, UCS can strengthen domestic systems through greater utilisation, thereby exposing deficiencies that can be corrected and eliminating the duplication of costs and efforts engendered by parallel systems. Ultimately, UCS gives developing countries a greater stake in their own development trajectory, as well as the tools to manage the process better. Yet the greater uptake of an UCS approach by MDBs and borrowers has been hampered by a number of key challenges. Firstly, UCS increases financial, reputational and development risks for all participants, notably around procurement functions. Secondly, the inflexibility of MDBs’ approaches to safeguards, together with implementation challenges, has hindered greater uptake. Thirdly, borrowers and MDBs face political challenges that hinder greater cooperation in this regard. Lastly, both MDBs and countries often lack the capacity to adequately implement UCS. This discussion paper explores the opportunities and challenges facing UCS in Africa by critically examining both literature and case studies of select African countries (Kenya, Morocco and South Africa) and their perceptions of and experiences with UCS. Ultimately, the research aims to contribute to a better understanding of UCS to inform the approach of MDBs operating in Africa – both established MDBs and emerging MDBs such as the New Development Bank.


Enhancing Mobilization of Own Source Revenue In Nairobi City County: Issues & Opportunities

IEA Kenya

Enhancing Mobilization of Own Source Revenue In Nairobi City County: Issues & Opportunities    File Size: 0 kB Downloads: 157
Post Date:
01 August 2017

This paper seeks to understand the challenges and opportunities of enhancing local revenue mobilization in Nairobi City County. It notes that local revenue is an important revenue source for the County given its expanding budgetary and service delivery needs. Furthermore, Nairobi County has little influence on the revenue it receives as transfers from the national government and that in cases of delays, local revenue is always a good fall back. Besides, local revenue is critical in fostering accountability and fiscal discipline in the county.


How Kenya is Failing to Create Decent Jobs

Africa Research Institute and IEA Kenya

How Kenya is Failing to Create Decent Jobs    File Size: 0 kB Downloads: 103
Post Date:
07 July 2017

In 2011, an African Development Bank report categorised one-third of Africa’s population – about 313 million people – as “middle class”.1 The term was controversially applied to those earning between US$2 and US$20 a day. The growth of a middle class in Africa has been widely celebrated in reports by international consultancies and investment banks eager to stimulate investment – and fees. A burgeoning middle class should boost tax revenues and consumer demand. It is generally considered to be good for political accountability and democracy, and a catalyst for social development, job creation, innovation and poverty reduction.

This narrative is problematic for many reasons. Middle classes are heterogeneous: their characteristics vary country by country. Most reports celebrating Africa’s rapidly growing middle class assign membership on the basis of income. But middle class and middle income are not synonymous and should not be conflated. “Class” is a socio-economic concept typically defined by many more indicators than income alone. Indeed, in contemporary Africa it is questionable whether Marxist-Weberian definitions of “class” fashioned in the West have any relevance at all.

Policy Debate On 5 Socio- Economic Issues In Kenya: Election 2017

IEA Kenya

Policy Debate On 5 Socio- Economic Issues In Kenya: Election 2017    File Size: 1,481 kB Downloads: 372
Post Date:
28 June 2017

This document is a compilation of five socio-economic issues affecting Kenya including; Education, Employment, Housing, Health, Water and Sanitation. The document delved into the effects these issues have on women, youth and persons with disability with the aim of empowering them to effectively participate and inform policy and issue oriented discourse during and beyond the forthcoming elections.

 

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Recent Posts

ARE PRIVATE SUSTAINABILITY STANDARDS OBSTACLES TO, OR ENABLERS OF, SME PARTICIPATION IN VALUE CHAINS?.

Informing the approach of multilateral development banks to use of country systems.

Enhancing Mobilization of Own Source Revenue In Nairobi City County: Issues & Opportunities.

How Kenya is Failing to Create Decent Jobs.

Policy Debate On 5 Socio- Economic Issues In Kenya: Election 2017.

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